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Non-karstic Caves of the Visegrádi Mountains

The 250 km2 Visegrádi Mountains make up the Trans-Danubian area of the Northern Hungarian Mountain Range between the Danube River, Dera Creek and Szentléleki Creek. The region is a stratovolcano which is strongly denudated and dissected along fault lines. It is composed of andesite agglomerate, andesite tuff and subordinately compacted andesite. The dissected tectonic blocks have been substantially uplifted and submerged to the same degree. In the westernmost part of the mountains the baserock is not covered with volcanic blanket. In the Castle Hill of EsztergomTriassic limestone crops out, which is overlain by Eocene sandstone.

In the Visegrádi Mountains there are 92 natural non-karstic caves. Furthermore 7 artificial cavities, called caves, have been listed. The overhelming majority of the natural caves (79 caves) have been formed in andesite agglomerate. Ten caves have been developed in andesite tuff, two caves are in compact andesite and one in sandstone.

There are syngentic caves such as the Mária Cave, Csikóvári Tube Cave and the Ablakos Cave. These are former fumarole channels. The origin of the Csódi-hegyi Cave is also assumed to be syngenetic.

Various postgenetic caves can be observed. The Kolevkai Rock Hole or the Hársas Shaft have developed by tectonic movement. The caves of the Vasas  Chasm and the Disznós-árki Cave  have occured as a result of the sliding of broken rock layers and    the consequent aggradation.

Rock fragmentation formed the Ötlyukú Cave, and theK őtorony-alatti  Cave. Pseudocaves are the Matricás Cave or the Kecske Hole. The caves of the Rám Chasm and the Karolina Trench are typical  erosion caves. The Dömörkapu Cave is a consequence cave, which has developed as a result of the collapse of a former mine passage. The Széchy Dénes Cave opens inthe Castle Hill of Esztergom. There the  thermal karstic solution has formedcavities in the Dachstein  Limestone near boundary of the limestone andthe covering Eocene sandstone. Later the cavities gradually collapsed and the holes ave relocated into the sandstone. As a consequence of that the major part of the cave is be found in sandstone.

The artificial cavities in Holdvilág Trench were made for use by ancient cults. The cavities in Malom Creek, near the village of Dömös are abandoned mining workings.

The following caves are longer than 10 m:

1.

Disznós-árki-bg.

Andesite agglomerate

Pilismarót

70

/-13 m

2.

Sas-kövi Cave

Andesite tuff

Szentendre

63

/-10 m

3.

Vasas-szakadék I. Cave

Andesite agglomerate

Szentendre

50

/-12 m

4

5.

Széchy Dénes Cave

Apát-kút-völgyi Cave

Sandstone and limestone

Andesite tuff

Esztergom

Visegrád

50

appr. 40

/±10 m

/+0,5 m

6.

Vasas-szakadék III. Cave

Andesite agglomerate

Szentendre

29,5

/-5,8 m

7.

Vasas-szakadék IV.Cave

Andesite agglomerate

Szentendre

25

/-15 m

8.

Vasas-szakadék II. Cave

Andesite agglomerate

Szentendre

25

/-12,5 m

9.

Ötlyukú Cave

Andesite agglomerate

Dömös

18,5

/+1,6 m

10.

Kőtorony-alatti Cave

Andesite agglomerate

Dömös

16

/-4 m

11.

Domini Cave

Andesite tuff

Pomáz

15,9

/+2,8 m

12.

13.

Kolevkai-sziklaüreg

Dömörkapui Cave

Andesite tuff and agglomerate

Andesite

Pomáz

Szentendre

15

13

/-8 m

/+2 m

14.

Hársas "Zsomboly"

Andesite agglomerate

Visegrád

10,5

/-7 m

15.

"Varga-lyuk"

Andesite agglomerate

Pilisszentkereszt

10

/-10 m

16.

Tűfok Cave

Andesite agglomerate

Esztergom

10

/-3,7 m

The total length of the 92 natural non-karstic caves is 779 m, the seven artificial cavities total 513 m in length. Most of the caves occur near Dömös (29 caves), Pomáz (19 caves), Eszterom(15 caves) and Szentendre (11 caves)

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