Caves of the Vajdavár Region
The 570 km2 Vajdavár Region, the catchment area of the Tarna River and Hangony Creek, makes up a significant part of the North Hungarian Mountain Range. It is a typical medium relief landscape which is formed from denudated fault blocks, interspersed with intermontane basins.
The area is composed of Miocene (Eggenburgian) compact clay, sandy clay ("slir" formation) and sandstone. The mainly denudated younger sediments appear only in a few insignificant outcrops.
Twenty-six natural non-karstic caves have been recorded in the region. All of them occur in the "Pétervására" Sandstone Formation. Seven artificial cavities excavated from the sandstone have been listed.
The cave development can be attributed to several influences. "Szarvas-kõi-üreg" has been formed as the result of tectonic movement. "Ordas-kõi-eresz", Nagy-Lyukas-kõ Cave and Peskõ Cave were formed by the loosening of the bedding plane. Nagy-Lyukas-kõ Cave or Lyukas-kõ-völgyi Cave developed as a result of by rock fragmentation. Peskõ Cave and Lyukas-kõ-völgyi Cave were also widened by breakdown, because of their exposed locationon the high cliffs. "Szarvas-kõi-kõlyuk" and Nagy-Lyukas-kõ Cave are most probably solution caves. The rock shelters at the foot of the hill such as "Farkas-lyuki-kõlyuk" and Debornya-sarkágyi Caves have been formed by the erosion of the river banks.
Included in the artificial cavities, mention should be made of the Rock Chapel of Istenmezeje. It served for a long time as the religious centre of the community. In some mine adits dug out in limey sandstone (Keserütanyai Adit, Szénlopó Adit) speleothems can be observed.
The total length of the 26 natural caves is 98 m, and the listed artificial cavities are 55 m long and furthermore is additional the over 100 m long "Temetõ-alatti-labirintus" (Labyrinth Beneath the Cemetery). Most of the caves occur in Tarnalelesz (8 caves). Here also is the entrance to the longest cave in the area, the 14.6 m long "Szarvas-kõi-kõlyuk".
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