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Caves of the Tokaj-Eperjesi Mountain Chain

This region is known as the Eperjes - Tokaji Mountain Range, and extends far beyond the Hungarian border into Slovakia. The name "Tokaji"was chosen for this chapter because 88% of the known caves occur in thispart of the region. The 3000 km2 Eperjes - Tokaji Mountains (Prešovsko-tokajského prohoria) are a part of the Northern Hungarian Mountain Range between the Tarca and Hernád Rivers and the Tapoly and Bodrog Rivers. The mountain is divided into four different, but connected parts. The Tokaji Mountains lie in the south, completely in Hungarian territory. North of the Tokaji Mountains are the Szalánci Mountains (Slánské vrchy) and the Zempléni Island Mountains (Zemplinské vrchy).

They are politically divided by the Hungarian - Slovakian border. The fourth part, the Eperjesi Mountains (Prešovské vrchy) can be found in Slovakian territory only.

The principal formations are denudated volcanic cones and laccoliths from the Miocene period.

Older constituents in the form of Hercynian blocks are only found in the Zempléni Island Mountains. The various areas of the mountains are divided by tectonic basins.

Three hundred and eleven natural non-karstic caves, and 11  artificial cavities, considered to be caves, have been identified in the whole ofthe mountain region. Two hundred and sixty-eight caves  can be found in the Hungarian Tokaji Mountains. Twenty caves are to be found in the Szalánci Mountains. Twenty three caves are to be found    in Slovakia in the Eperjesi Mountains. In the Zempléni Island  Mountains no caves have been discovered. All of the caves have developed in the Miocene volcanic formations (Badenian and  Sarmatian).

The distribution of the caves according to the rock formations is as follows:

Rhyolite

34

e.g.: Smirgli Cave

Rhyodacite

15

Kajla Cave

Amphibole dacite

12

Regéci-vár Cave

Perlite

6

Lackó Cave

Rhyolite tuff

23

Fuló-hegyi Nagy Cave

Andesite

210

Rózsa Sándor Cave

Andesite agglomerate

11

Jaskya ”T”

 

311 caves

   

Two sygentic caves occurs. One is the Fels Cave, which is a fumarole shaft in the Mandulás near the town of  Sárospatak The other cave is the Lapos Cave. It is a gas bubble cavity in the Nagy-Bekecs-kszál near the village of Háromhuta .

The rest of the caves, numbering 309, have postgenetic origin. Several  caves were developed along fault lines as a result of movement for example, Galériás Cave and the Tárház-alatti Cave in the village of Füzér. The Nehéz Through Cave near the village of Háromhuta and the Megtört Crevice in the village of Regéc were formed at intersection zones of the fissure belts.

The most significant fissure caves, the Vitrova dzira (Szél-lyuk) and Nova Vitrova dzira (Új Szél-lyuk), are to be found in Slovakia near the village of Niná Kamenica (in Hungarian Alsókémény).A connected shaft system constitutes of the caves, however the connection between them has not discovered yet. The creek has eroded the hillside whereupon the rock masses have lost their balance. As a consequence ofthat the rock masses at the creek side have separated from the upper part  and downcasted. Between the in situ and the downcasted rock masses a remarkable shaft – crevice system has formed.

Many other caves are the result of rock fragmentation, for example Rózsa Sándor Cave, Bárány-hegyi Cave, Smirgli  Cave etc.

Several caves have been formed as consequence of loosening along the bedding planes. These caves are for example Lállás Cave and Holyca Cave.

There are also some pseudocaves, such as Boldogkvári Hole and Labirintus Cave.

The caves of Mount Fuló, Nagy Cave, Kis Cave and others in quartziferous rhyolite tuff are formed by alkaline solution.

Artificial cavities, called caves, are mainly former mine workings.

Speleothems occur in several caves. Notable are the 30 cm long silicastalactites in Arany Cave. Galériás Cave and Smirgli Cave are nicely decorated with pisolitic silica formations. Ice cover and icicles form in the Jeges- üreg ( Ice hole) of   Telkibánya. In summer a +1°C draught of air blows from the entrance of the Úpätná jaskya (Huzatos-barlang).

Twenty-four caves are longer than 10 m. The following ten of them are over 20 m:

                                                             1. Nova Vitrova dzira andesite and andesite agglomerate NináKamenica   402 /-60 m

                                                             2. Vitrova dzira andesite and andesite agglomerate Niná Kamenica   150 /-55 m

3..

Arany Cave

Rhyolite tuff

Tállya

50

/+2,8 m

4.

Rózsa Sándor Cave

Andesite

Regéc

45,6

/-13,9 m

5.

Regéci vár Cave

Rhyodacite

Regéc

40

/±6,5 m

6.

"Nehéz-átjáróbarlang"

Andesite

Háromhuta

31,5

/±5,9 m

7.

Iván Cave

Rhyolite

Erdbénye

29

/2,1 m

8

Fuló-hegyi Nagy Cave

Quartziferous rhyolite tuff

Legyesbénye

24,5

/+3,3 m

9.

Rókás Cave

Andesite

Regéc

21,2

/±3,6 m

10.

Veterná diera v Malej Zabrene

Andesite

Mirkovce

20,5

/-10,5 m

 

Sixty-four caves are to be found near Regéc, 66 in Fónyand 54 in  Háromhuta. The total length of the 285 caves in Hungary is 1378 m.  The length of the 25 Slovakian caves totals 684 m.

The 11 listed artificial cavities are 1158 m long.

 

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