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Non-karstic Caves of the Bakony Mountains

The 4000 km2 Bakony Mountains form the mostextensive region of the Trans-Danubien Mountains between Lake Balaton and Marcal River. They have a typical medium relief, which includes plateaus at various elevations, denudated fault blocks interspersed with itermontane basins. In the southern and western areas of the mountains basalt cones and basaltic sheets are frequently found. In the central area the variously sloping landscape is inclined towards the blocks.

The geological formation reveals many differing aspects.Various calcareous, quartziferous and organogenic sediments as well as volcanic rock formations occur from the Paleozoic to the Holocene. Predominant constituents are limstones and dolomites with extensive karst regions and numerous karst caves. Of course, from the point of view of the non-karsticcaves these regions are insignificant.

Significantly smaller is the occurence of quartziferous (sandstone and conglomerate) and basalt rocks , however 149 non-karstic cave are known in these rocks, and in addition, 20 artificial cavities, considered as caves, are listed.

Most of the 60 non-karstic caves have been developed in basalt. Non-karstic caves can be found in most of the basalt hills such as "Badacsony", Mount Kovácsi, and Mount Szent György.

Forty caves are listed in the geyserite of the Tihanyi Peninsula. Thirty-three non-karstic caves appear in the Miocene calcareous conglomerate of South Bakony and 10 caves are known in the Pannonian quartziferous sandstone of the Kali Basin. Furthermore 8 caves have developed in basaltic tuff and one in loess. The artificial cavities were generally dug in basaltic tuff (Tihany) and in Pannonian fine sandy clay (Balatonkenese).

Some of the non-karstic caves have a syngenetic origin,for example the gas bubble cavities in Szigliget and the cavities in Tihany,have been formed by gaseous explosion.  In the overwhelming majority  of cases the non-karstic caves have been developed by postgenetic processes.Typically, the caves have formed along the movement of fault lines. The"Pokol - lik" in Kapolcs and the Remete Cave in Zalaszántó are fissure caves, which were formed at the same time as the outcroping rim of the rock formation.    In contrast the fissure cave of "Tátika" has developed perpendicular to the rim of the outcrop. The basalt cave in Pula and the caves between the basalt columns of  "Badacsony and Mount Szent György are the result of rock fragmentation. Forty caves on the Tihanyi Peninsula have   been developed in geyserite as a result of alkaline solution.

In the talus deposits of the basalt cones, typical atectonic pseudocaves such as the "Vadlán-lik" in Mount Kovácsi or the Sárkány Ice Caves in Mount Szent György areto be found. In the Tihanyi Peninsula near the Kis-erd§-tet§i Rock Shelter not cave size tafoni are to be found in the basaltic tuff.

In the Bakony Mountains the following non-karstic cavesare longer than 10 m:

 

1.

Pulai Basalt Cave

Basalt

Pula

151

/-22 m

2.

Halász Árpád Cave

Basalt

Nagyvázsony

72

/-6 m

3.

"Pokol-lik"

Basalt

Kapolcs

51

/+3 m

4.

Remete Cave

Basalt

Zalaszántó

39

/20 m

5.

1. Sárkány Ice Cave

Basalt

Tapolca

32

/-10 m

6.

"Halápi-bazaltlyuk"

Basalt

Zalahaláp

appr. -30 m

7.

Araszoló Cave

Basalt

Raposka

26

/-10 m

8.

"Vadlány-lik"

Basalt

Nagygörb§

24

/-4 m

9.

Gödrösi Explosion Cave

Basalt tuff

Tihany

16

/-6 m

10.

Ternye Cave

Basalt

Badacsonytomaj

14

/+5 m

11.

Forrás Cave

Geyserite

Tihany

14

/+2 m

12.

"K§kamra"

Basalt

Nagygörb§

12

/+4 m

13.

Pulai Basalt Tuff Cave

Basalt tuff

Pula

10

/+2 m

14.

Fehér-parti 1. Cave

Geyserite

Tihany

10

/+1 m

Most of the non-karstic caves can be found at Tihany (45 caves), at Badacsonytomaj (12 caves) and at Nagygörb § (11 caves). The total length of the known natural non-karstic caves is 973 m and the listed 20 artificial cavities total 84 m.

  

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