to the Index Map of Hungary
to the Table of the Regions
to the statistical summary
The list includes 1239 non-karstic caves, although there are a total of 1241 caves because some clusters of small caves have been drawn together. We have listed al the caves known upto 2015. Some cave which are known to have existed, have been destroyed and these have been specially noted. Furthermore, listed are caves of the border regions of Austria and Slovakia, which belong to similar geomorphological and geological formations. Also included in the list are artificial or artificially widened cavities, which are considered as caves by the local population.These include abandoned mine workings, rock shelters, former hermitages, underground commercial premises whichare several hundred years old, rock-chapels and other cavities used for religious purposes throughout history. However, the list does not include cellars, former cave-dwellings in built up areas, basements, former military bunkers, industrial objects or air-raid shelters.
The majority of the non-karstic caves in Hungary (881 caves) developed in igneous rocks, in andesite, basalt, rhyolite and in their tuffaceous formations as well as in granite porphyry. Some 274 caves are known in sedimentary rocks, mainly in sandstones and conglomerate and 84 caves are formed in metamorphic rocks, in calcareous phillite and in green schist.
The caves have been formed in various ways. Between the syngenetic caves in the magmatic rocks, gas bubbles occurred, forming crystal caves, which have been opened by mine workings. Also in magmatic rocks holes formed by alkaline solution can be found, as well as fumarole cavities, hollows resulting from steam explosions, holes formed by weathering between the basaltic colums and natural bridges. In the magmatic, sedimentary and metamorphic rock formations tectonic fracture caves frequently appear, collapse labyrinths, atectonic and consequence caves. Erosion niches, rock shelters, and small tunnels are formed mainly in tuffaceous formations, sandstones and loess.
During the deposition of the calc-tufas, characteristic syngenetic caves formed concurrently. Corridors, tunnels and chambers and other artificial holes were frequently mined and enlarged in volcanic tuffs and sandstones but rarely in other rock formations.
Organised research beganin1983 with the launch of the Volcanspeleological Collective.Their comprehensive activity is still ongoing. The organisation, led by István Eszterhás, consists of a nucleus of 15 persons, who are occasionally joined by several more cavers. They have listed and surveyed 1240 non-karstic caves. In 40 caves they dug and discovered nearly 1000 m of new cave passages. They studied the development of the non-karstic caves, and they determined new types of cave development (consequence caves, holes formed by alkaline solution, fumarole cavities).
They have found, and described, some speleothems previously unknown in Hungary, such as silicat stalactites and isingerit discs. They have solved the problem of ice development in low elevation basalt caves.They have classified 200 species of animals and 18 speciesof fungii (some of them are unusual) which are to be found in the caves. The results have been summarized in 7 separate volumes and in 188 articles mainly in Hungarian, but occasionally in German or in English.
The following is a short list of the longest non-karstic caves in Hungary:
1. Csörgő Hole (rhyodacit tuff) Mátra Mountains 428/-30 m
2. Anna Calc-tufa Cave,partly man-made (calc-tufa) Bükk Mountains 600/ ±18m
3. Várhegyi Calc-tufa Cave, partly man-made (calc-tufa) Budai Mountains 3300/±15m (3. according to the appr. length of the natural part)
4. Papp Ferenc Cave,partly karstic (sandstone, conglomerate, limestone) PilisMountains 335/-66m
5. Tettyei calc-tufa Cave, partly man-made (calc-tufa) Mecsek Mountains 218/+2 m
6. Szabó József Cave, partly karstic (sandstone, marl) Pilis Mountains 200/-25 m
7. Pulai Basalt Cave(basalt) Bakony Mountains 151/-22 m
8. Csák-kői Big Cave, partly man-made (rhyolite ) Mátra Mountains 133/+14 m
9. Soltészkerti Calc-tufa Cave, partly man-made (calc-tufa) Bükk Region 115/+2m
10. Betyár Cave (calcareous sandstone) Mátra Mountains 87/±7m
11. Kő-hegyi Cave (calc-tufa) Gerecse Mountains 85/±12 m
12. Halász Árpád Cave, partly man-made (basalt) Bakony Mountains 72/-6m
13. Disznós-árki-Cave (andezite agglomerate) Visegrádi Mountains 70/-13 m
14. Szilvás-kői Cave (basalt) Medves-Ajnácskői Mountains 65/-13 m
15. Sas-kövi Cave (andesite tuff) Visegrádi Mountains 63/-10m
16. "Táncterem"- Lepkés Passage (andesite agglomerate) BükkRegion 58/-6 m
17. Sárkánytorok Cave (basalt) Medves - Ajnácskői Mountains 51/-16 m
18. Pokol Hole (basalt) Bakony Mountains 51/+4 m
19. Vasas Chasm NoI.Cave (andesite agglomerate) Visegrádi Mountains 50/-19m
20. Széchy Dénes Cave (limestone and sandstone) Esztergom 50 /±10 m
21. Arany Cave (rhyolite tuff ) Tokaj -Eperjesi Mountain Chain 50/+3 m
22. Rózsa Sándor Cave (andesite) Tokaj -Eperjesi Mountain Chain 46/-14m
The digital development of the Non-karstic Cave Registry was carried out using Arcview GIS with the available digital map material. .Digital maps with different scales have been developed for the specific regions as project files (apr). The number of map pages for a region depends on the number and distribution of caves.
The cave entrances have been marked on the maps on a separate layer (shp file). Originally the caves were recorded in survey books, topographic maps, and in notes following many years of research and exploration.
Arcview determines the eov_x and eov_y coordinates (eov= uniform national projection) of cave entrances in shp file format. The z coordinate, or the elevation of the cave entrances (a.s.l.) can be read from the contour lines of the base maps or on the base of GPS measurements.
The maps were drawn using color, and different line thickness etc. The most important item was the indication of the cave entrances and cave names. .The maps were exported in jpg file format. This enables further utilization and handling.
From the twenty-one regions the caves of 16 regions can be drawn in more then one map page. Therefore the preparation of regional index maps was necessary. These maps show the exact location of the map pages with the cave entrances indicated.
The Index Map of Hungary shows the 21 locations of the regions with non-karstic caves and a table of the regions has been prepared, too..
The. Index Map of Hungary and the Regional Index maps were converted to jpg file format, as were the deatailed maps, the advantage being that jpg format is also similar.
The dbf database, which was compiled automatically from the shp files was filled with cave data. This included: identification nnumber, name and length of the cave, special notes (artificial, collapsed etc.) and the enclosing rock. The eov_x and eov_y coordinates of the cave entrances (eov= uniform national projection) were enterd as numeric fields in the data base.
In order to present regional datasheets, the dbf database was copied in and xls (MsExcell) file formats and the data is sorted in alphabetic order in some cases the z coordinate is indicated . Where Regional Index Maps exist this data is also sorted according to the indicated map pages of the Index Map.
The cave surveys and photographs were saved in gif and jpg file format. The cave descriptions were written in txt format.
The digital data in the non-karstic cave list, such as detailed maps and the index maps, the cave surveys and the photographs the data sheets and the descriptions allows the transfer and presentation of the cave list.
The Home Page of the cave list summarises the non-karstic caves in Hungary.